1 2 diol synthesis epoxide
A palladium-catalyzed diacetoxylation of alkenes in the presence of peracetic acid and acetic anhydride produces diacetates efficiently and diastereoselectively.
Niche reactions[ edit ] Reduction of an epoxide with lithium aluminium hydride or aluminium hydride produces the corresponding alcohol.
The epoxides are prepared by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide of the alkene. An aerobic acetoxyhydroxylation of alkenes is cooperatively catalyzed by organic nitrite and paper terms dictionary at room temperature using clean and cheap air as the sole oxidant.
Nucleophilic epoxidation[ edit ] Electron-deficient olefins, such as enones and acryl derivatives can be epoxidized using nucleophilic oxygen compounds such as peroxides. Then, followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, the second hydroxyl group attacks the electron deficient carbon.
Modified heterogeneous silver catalysts are typically employed.
Provided that there are enough carbon atoms that the angle strain is not too much, a cyclic ether can be formed. When treated with thiourea, epoxides convert to the sulfide, which are called thiiranes.
Catalysts are required as well. Hot water acts as a modest acid catalyst, reactant, and solvent in the hydrolysis reactions.
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