History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression Serotonin’s Effects on Depression: The Evolution of a Hypothesis

History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression, access to this article is available to valid users

This hypothesized pathophysiology appears to be supported by the mechanism of action of antidepressants: The observation of this efficacy led to the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which postulates that the deficit of certain neurotransmitters is responsible for the corresponding features of depression: There are various competing and sometimes overlapping theories that aim to explain mood disorders such as depression.

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Additionally, many researchers have not yet determined whether the decrease in serotonin causes depression or whether the depression causes serotonin levels to decrease. This along with the finding of increased F2-isoprostanes levels found in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid indicate increased damage to lipids and DNA in depressed patients.

One possible explanation for this lag is that the neurotransmitter activity enhancement is the result of auto receptor desensitization rather which can take weeks.

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These regions are important in reward processing, and dysfunction of them in depression is thought to underly anhedoniaa core symptom of depression involving decreased ability to feel pleasure. In conclusion, it is clear that antidepressant agents in current use do indeed require intact monoamine systems for their therapeutic effect.

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Authors suggested lifestyle factors, dysregulation of the HPA axis, immune system and autonomics nervous system as possible causes. Genetic factors[ edit ] Genetic factors involved in depression have been difficult to identify.

The effect would be the same as a low level of neurotransmitters. However, two of the largest studies [4] [5] were negative.

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Increased mean core temperature was also observed. While researchers like Sprangers et al.

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The Original Serotonin Hypothesis The original serotonin hypothesis was developed in a novel way: Some researchers went so far as to accuse previously published papers of having false evidence to support the pharmaceutical industry. Salience network[ edit ] The salience network is phd thesis topics in english literature cingulate-frontal operculum network that includes core nodes in the anterior cingulate and anterior insula.

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